appearing as affects, is an indication of instability within the sub-systems of the organism or between the organism and environment.75 Learning, thinking, and reasoning with empirically related concepts leads to the formation of new behavioral and cognitive patterns which restore the stability and remove the normalizing distortion. However, for various personal, social and cultural reasons the distortion-producing structural aggregates, and hence the stimuli that are reacted to, are not always eliminated by this simple efficient means. With this failure, the most basic adaptive process, the selective elimination of distortion-producing stimuli and memory organizations, comes into operation.76 Before we discuss this basic adaptive process we shall discuss the nature of normalizing distortion.
1. THE NATURE OF NORMALIZING DISTORTION
As was stated above, the continuous maintenance and re-establishment of the high asymmetry rate of the normalizing-respiratory process is the normalizing process manifesting itself in living organisms. In the human, this tendency toward the restoration of the asymmetry norm appears as the high vibratory rate of the normalizing-respiratory process. The normalizing process moreover has particular properties as defined by Whyte: “The normalizing process develops static or cyclic structures that facilitate normalization.” (The structures that facilitate normalization tend to repeat themselves.) The normalizing process further develops and maintains these
[ 75 Normalizing distortion can appear as the intensity attributes of external stimuli or in the internal affects--particularly in the emotions but also in the physiological drives. Affective normalizing distortion is conceived to operate as follows. Certain areas (cognitive) in the frontal lobes are know to exercise a controlling influence over lower “emotional centers” in the hypothalamus and in the amygdaloid nuclear complex (situated in the temporal lobe). Over-stimulation (conscious or sub-conscious) of these area by the frontal areas results in the over-stimulation of the internal receptors of the organic sense as suggested above. This over-stimulation of these internal receptors leads to the expressing of intense emotions including “anxiety” and “tension.” The over-stimulation also results in an excessive free energy breakdown in these structures which is normalizing distortion. Thus, intensity attributes of external stimuli and intense emotions are both similar since both are due to varying amounts of free energy breakdown.
76 Quantum memory organizations are not “eliminated” in the sense that they are completely removed from the memory areas of the organism. On the contrary, these memories are still retained as evidence of the clear recall of childhood memories in old age and the symptoms of regressive psychosis indicates. It seems that the memories are eliminated from the two highest cognitive memory levels but are still retained in the lowest level (such as Penfield’s temporal memory areas). In very old age and in regressive psychosis these memories seem again to be activated. It is memories on this level (which perhaps include instincts and dreams) that seem to come to the fore in psychosis and which are elicited by the mystic, certain propagandists, and by certain primitive peoples as in the hysterical “tom-tom” dances. These latter people are not abnormal but simply have not developed the socio-cultural organizations which, in turn, encourage the development of the two highest cognitive memory levels in the human. ]
[ 77 This holds on the genetic level also. For example, gradual and prolonged changes in environmental conditions (such as temperature and disappearance or change in food supplies) lead to a lowered asymmetry level and increased functional activity in some internal sub-system both of which lead to normalizing distortions of the genetic level. (For temperature changes, see thermodynamic formula relating free energy to temperature and other variables.) And similarly, still on the genetic level, these sources of normalizing distortion are offset by the normalizing process selectively eliminating the distortion-producing stimuli and memories (controlling the processes and sub-systems involved in distortion), and promoting the development of those stimuli and quantum patterns that develop processes and structures which facilitate the intrinsic tendency of the normalizing process in conformance with the new environment-organism system. The means of selective elimination of distortion-involved stimuli and quantum patterns and the promotion of facilitating stimuli and memories are probably the well-known inhibitor and facilitating enzymes. That is, the postulate is that the process is a creative one—new aggregates or genes are being formed by the structuring process and this is the basic source of genetic change rather than chance mutation such as chance quantum configurational jump changes in some part of an otherwise unchanging nucleoprotein structure. (The chance jump is seen as being caused by factors such as “heat motion” becoming statistically concentrated at a particular genetic point.) Modern genetics, however, emphasizes chance effects and random mutations leading to the development of new characters whose adaptabilities are confirmed by natural selection. The emphasis on chance as the causal factor of mutation, as Goldschmidt and others point out, may be due more to the experimental and statistical techniques employed rather than to chance effects per se. For example, the massive shock techniques of heat treatment, X-ray radiation, etc. to induce mutation must severely disrupt the quantum field patterns which are here postulated to control the
other than those already mentioned are incoming stimuli of each external and internal sub-system, stimuli from the semi-autonomous central process, abnormal functional activities, inefficient activity on the part of the organism, etc. As long as these do not exceed certain distortion thresholds, they serve to facilitate the normal development and functioning of the organism and are not subject to selective elimination by the normalizing process; however, intense and/or prolonged stimuli, intense and/or prolonged functional activity, and prolonged inefficient activity etc. tend to exceed certain distortion thresholds and are, hence, the stimuli and quantum patterns which are subject to selective elimination by the normalizing process. All the factors mentioned tend to dissipate the free energy (asymmetry level) of the organism and in effect lower the asymmetry rate thus being distortional factors.
Each sub-system and related process in the organism apparently has a threshold which we shall call the adjustive-disruptive normalizing distortion threshold. (The level at which the threshold is placed in the various sub-systems seems to vary over a certain range. Thus, for example, the threshold seems to be low in the motor sub-systems and high in the symbolic-conceptual sub-systems. These thresholds are not rigidly fixed but are flexible and can vary to certain degrees.) A degree of normalizing distortion (or energy release) is, of course, necessary for each sub-system to effect its normal functioning and development. This holds for all internally ----------------------------
genetic developmental processes. When these damaged or disorganized patterns are decoupled by incoming stimuli and structured into aggregates, the developmental processes that they initiate lead to the synthesis of new structural organizations (characters) which often cause the organism as a whole to fall out of relation with its environment in any of a number of ways. It is little wonder that the characters formed as a result of these experimental procedures are often observed to be lethal and thus lead to the experimental observation and theoretical conclusion that such “chance” mutations are more often harmful than beneficial. (The ability to start a new synthesis that leads to the development of structural organizations—personal, social and cultural that have lethal potentialities for these various units—is a peculiar and powerful ability of the human’s cognitive processes. Unveridical concepts, for whatever reason they arise, lead to the development of cultural-cognitive systems, social groups and social-cultural systems or personality attributes that cause the unit as a whole to fall out of relation with its environment. The units disappear, are dominated or live a “living death”—the so-called non-vital cultures are an example—until oblivion, domination or reformation occurs.) The source of genetic innovation may lay in part in such chance mutations which are “selected” by the environment but the major source of genetic innovation and evolutionary change, it is postulated, is in the responding of the normalizing-structuring process—with its complement of quantum pattern memories—to normalizing distortion. The resultant is a one-way development of the organism or species in accordance with their specific environment and in accordance with the potentialities available in their genetic endowment. ]
and externally oriented sub-systems and processes and is best noted at the receptor periphery in sensory adaptation; in the structuring process—in the phenomena of intensity attributes; in perception—in the shifting adaptation level; and in the cognitive processes—in the phenomena of expectancy, anticipation, and intention. The normalizing distortion below this threshold is the degree of asymmetry induction or normalizing distortion that facilitates normal functioning and development in a particular modality sub-system. This degree of normalizing distortion is adjustive, that is, leads to the normal functioning and development of the sub-system. The normalizing distortion above this threshold is the degree of normalizing distortion that impedes or disrupts the normal functioning and development of the sub-systems.
2. SENSORY ADAPTATION
The established viewpoint is that sensory adaptation occurs at the receptor periphery. The phenomenon is a partial or complete disappearance of a sensory quality (sensation), particularly in the skin and chemical senses, despite the fact that the stimulus remains perfectly constant. The interpretation from unitary theory is as follows. Continued stimulation at the receptor periphery, at a particular point, depletes the asymmetry re-supply (phosphagen supply) to the normalizing process operating at the periphery. The consequence is a failure to transmit the complete external stimulation inward after a period of time. Other more central effects, such as changes in the timing or synchronization of the incoming stimuli via synaptic blocking so that these do not reach the structuring centers, seem also to contribute their effects. Thus, what appears as peripheral adaptation is very likely controlled by the normalizing process for it may control the rate of phosphagen re-supply and pacing activities in the whole organism. Hence, sensory adaptation is an aspect of the normalizing process selectively eliminating stimuli that do not promote its symmetry tendency.
3. DIMENSIONAL OR INTENSITY ATTRIBUTES
4. ADAPTATION LEVEL
The threshold of adjustive-disruptive normalizing distortion in a particular modality sub-system also yields us a frame of reference for our ---------------------------
[ 78 All (internal and external) receptor sub-systems have complex peripheral and/or centrally controlled reflexive sensory-motor mechanisms that automatically adjust the receptor (or adjust the organism as a whole) to variations in sensory intensity. This whole system may be regarded as a means of selectively facilitating or selectively eliminating degrees of normalizing distortion that promote and thwart respectively the symmetry tendency of the normalizing process operating in the organism-in-environment system. (Yet, as this writer pointed out above, he is still not quite sure whether “intensity attributes” arise in the depolarization or repolarization phase of the structuring process.) ]
dimensional experiences in relation to perception. For example, suppose at one time we lift a weight of 100 gm and at another time we lift a weight of 1 gm. We perceive one to be “heavy” (and quickly become fatigued) and the other as “light.” We can continue lifting the 1 gm weight for quite some time without fatigue. This frame of reference of heavy-light is related to Helson’s discovery that individuals acquire a momentary scale or frame of reference by which to judge perceptual phenomena. For example, if one lifts a series of weights between 400 and 600 gms, it is found that one perceives a weight of 475 gms as neither heavy nor light. Thus, the individual has established an average, a neutral or medium point—which Helson calls the adaptation level—between the two weights. If one now lifts a series of weights between 200 and 400 gms, he establishes an adaptation level at 250 gms. But the interesting point is if one re-lifts the 475 gm weight (which felt neither heavy nor light before) one now finds the same weight actually feels heavier than before. How can we explain the adaptation level and the change of percepts despite the fact that both stimuli (475 gms) were actually the same? The interpretation is as follows: As we lift the series of weights between 400 and 600 gms, a certain degree of asymmetry must be inducted into the muscular sub-system (which appears in the structuring center) to remove the distortion produced by each weight-stimulus; the degree of distortion produced, or the degree of asymmetry inducted, gives the perceptual phenomenon related to a particular weight. But as we lift the series of weights, a change in the asymmetry rate-level is caused which shifts the symmetry-tending normalizing process in the direction to offset the distortional effects of the stimuli-weights. Moreover, it requires time for the normalizing process to restore its asymmetry level, that is, to remove the normalizing distortion produced by the series of stimuli. This puts the asymmetry level being re-established at a particular rate point at a particular moment. It is postulated that it is that weight whose distortion corresponds to this particular rate point which gives the perceptual intensity attribute of neutrality. (Of course, after a period of time, the sub-system reverts to its intrinsic adjustive-distruptive normalizing threshold point, that is, after the asymmetry level has been completely re-established.) In other words, it is the asymmetry level which is being restored by the normalizing process at a particular moment which, when inducted into the structural aggregates involved in the stimulated sub-system, yields Helson’s momentary adaptation level. Now, when the lower adaptation level is established (250 gms) this sets the asymmetry rate point (which gives the perceptual intensity attribute of neutrality) at a lower point so that if we now lift the 475 gm weight (which previously appeared neutral) it is experienced as heavier because the frame of reference previously established is no longer in existence. Thus we experience the asymmetry which must be inducted to restore the distortion being introduced by this weight within the new “frame of reference.” This accounts for the difference in perception from neutral to heavier for the 475 gm weight. In summary, the asymmetry inducted on this particular level yields us our shifting criteria of intensity variables—heaviness, brightness, loudness, etc.—related to some specific event or object. The shifting frame of reference on the perceptual level is given by the shifts in asymmetry rate restoration at this particular level.
Sensory intensity attributes are normalizing distortions with their empirical referents external to the organism and similarly, affective intensity attributes are normalizing distortions with their referents in the sub-systems of the organism. Both types of normalizing distortion become incorporated into their respective structural aggregates in the structuring process and these structural aggregates become interrelated via the common asymmetry chain and are subsequently recorded as the quantum pattern memories. In this way, both types of normalizing distortion—interoceptive and exteroceptive—become related to one another and incorporated in the memory organizations underlying the cognitive processes. The induction of configurational asymmetry by the central semi-autonomous process using these aggregates, into the perceptual level or into the conceptual and abstract levels, or into the motor areas, yields what we experience as expectancy, attention, anticipation, intention, etc.; these are all in part intensity attributes. (This is possibly why surgical ablation or impairment of the anterior frontal lobes impairs the patient’s affective, motivational, attentional, planning, etc. abilities for the pre-frontals seem to contain past memories of affectively involved normalizing distortion. These memories are ordinarily used in the induction of configurational asymmetry into the various sub-systems and memory levels mentioned above. The patient does not behave in a normal way because he has lost the ability to redintegrate these affectively involved normalizing distortions and hence, cannot induct these into his perceptual, motor or cognitive sub-systems or memory levels.)
6. THE ELIMINATION OF NORMALIZING DISTORTION
More and more we are coming to realize that the problems of the nature of the mind are the problems of symbolic thought, that the problems of the nature of reality are in large part problems of the fit between our symbols and that reality. . .The discovery or invention of symbolization has given man his power, his glory, his soul, his escape from chains of instinct and of directing adaptive response. It has also been the cause of most of his ills—material and spiritual. “The ability to know things that are not so is an extraordinary and unique peculiarity of man. . .” This ability of man “to be spectacularly wrong and wrong over long spans of space and time. . .”
[Note: the balance of this paragraph on page 363 and its conclusion at the top of page 364 have been omitted as non-scientific social discourse. Ed.]
[ 79 Apparently there is a lack of large reserves of creatine phosphate in the fluid matrix with a consequent impairment of the synaptic junction’s ability to maintain the normal concentration of ATP. When the quantum field structures arrive at the presynaptic nerve endings, acetylcholine intercepts the quantum field structures, reacts with ATP—thereby undergoing depolarization—and uses this energy to transmit the quantum field structures across the junction. (The acetylcholine acts as an ion by migrating across the injunction over a distance up to one micron.) It then inducts the quantum field structures into energy-giving synaptic acetylcholine. (The “synaptic acetylcholine” is this writer’s own postulate. Some experimentalists state there is only pre-synaptic acetylcholine; other state that there is only post-synaptic acetylcholine. The present postulate is an attempt to resolve the impasse until further experimentation proves otherwise.) This acetylcholine passes the quantum field structures to the atomic nuclei of a receptor protein in the post-synaptic membrane thereby causing its depolarization. The energy for the repolarization of the pre-synaptic acetylcholine is furnished by the catabolistic cycle associated with the pre-synaptic nerve fiber. The energy for the repolarization of the synaptic acetylcholine is furnished directly by the creatine phosphate supplies in the fluid matrix. The energy for the repolarization of the post-synaptic receptor protein is furnished by a catabolistic cycle associated with the post-synaptic membrane—neural or muscular. It is the failure of the repolarization of the synaptic acetylcholine due to the lack of creatine phosphate which blocks the passage of the quantum field structures to the receptor protein in the post-synaptic membrane. [Adrenalin and adrenalin-like hormones may be responsible for the failure of synaptic acetylcholine repolarization. An excessive amount of adrenalin or adrenalin-like hormones may cause an initially rapid breakdown of ATP, shortly leaving the synaptic junction with a depleted supply of free energy. Serotonin, for example, an adrenalin related hormone and a powerful synaptic inhibitor, initially produces exaggerated activity (via rapid ATP breakdown?) and then works as a powerful synaptic inhibitor (due to lack of free energy?). The electro-shock and shock-drug therapies and the “wonder drugs” must work in just the opposite fashion. These therapies and drugs must work by restoring synaptic transmission by increasing the PC supply in the fluid matrix. ]
[ 80 In motor sub-systems new aggregates emanating from the structuring center in time apparently bypass the blocked route. That is, different configurational aggregates are formed in the structuring center which initiate alternative patterns of muscular contractions that promote the symmetry tendency of the normalizing process, the blocked route in effect selectively eliminating the distortion-producing response with the result that it is prevented from functional activity and further memory differentiation takes place for the alternative response instead. The configurational proprioceptive stimuli related to the latter response undergo memory formation and the blocked response does not, the blocked response thus being selectively eliminated from further functional activity in relation to the specific situation involved. In the symbolic-conceptual or cognitive sub-systems, which apparently have a high threshold to disruptive normalizing distortion, the main mode of selective elimination of disruptive stimuli and memory patterns seems to be new learning or relearning and new or modified patterns of behavior toward the environment. Selective elimination of memory patterns on this level by this basic process seems to produce a conceptual deficit. This deficit, however, is actually adaptive—it is the cultural and social attitudes toward humans with these deficits that lead to personality disorganization and not the intrinsic operation of the normalizing process per se. ]
memory structural aggregates over a period of time depletes the synaptic junction of its phosphagen supply; consequently, there is a failure of repolarization and hence, a failure of transmission across the junction for this particular aggregate-coupled asymmetry chain.80 Thus, the aggregates that are distorting the symmetry tendency are blocked from their normal route. This method and/or some other method which changes the timing or synchronization in effect prevents the stimuli and memory aggregates from being expressed in cognitive or behavioral activity. However, as pointed out above, the human through his cognitive process can selectively eliminate these memory organizations much more rapidly and efficiently than with this slower process. Consequently, this slower process probably works mainly in the motor memory areas (which seem to have a low threshold to normalizing distortion) eliminating inefficient muscular movement over a period of time and leading to the selective retention of those movements that promote the symmetry tendency. But that this selective process operates when intense normalizing distortions develop is indicated by the humans’ functional neurosis and psychosis…
[Note: Eliminated here is section R relating to personality disorders and the pages that remain hereafter in the book consisting, in toto, of the remainder of page 365 and through page 555 Also omitted are the author’s Appendix B relating to the subject matter of Section R and pages 365-555, his Appendix A, and the Index. The Bibliography and Name Index follow this note. Ed. ]